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Dutch Jews are rounded up by German authorities in Amsterdam for deportation to concentration and extermination camps in the East.

        

dutch

Dutch Jews are rounded up by German authorities in Amsterdam for deportation to concentration and extermination camps in the East. The first roundup and deportation of Amsterdam’s Jewish population began on 22 February 1941 when the Germans arrested several hundred Jews and deported them to Buchenwald concentration camp and then to Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria where all ultimately perished. In January 1942, the Germans began the relocation of provincial Jews to Amsterdam. Within Amsterdam, Jews were restricted to certain sections of the city. Foreign and stateless Jews were sent directly to the Westerbork transit camp. In July 1942, the Germans began mass deportations of Jews to extermination camps in occupied Poland, primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor. In May 1943, German authorities ordered 7,000 Jews in Amsterdam, to assemble in an Amsterdam city square for deportation. Only 500 people complied. The Germans responded by sealing the Jewish quarter and rounding up Jews. From May through September 1943, the Germans launched raids to seize Jews in the city. The Germans confiscated the property left behind by deported Jews. In 1942 alone the contents of nearly 10,000 apartments in Amsterdam were expropriated by the Germans and shipped to Germany. Some 25,000 Jews, including at least 4,500 children, went into hiding to evade deportation. About one-third of those in hiding were discovered, arrested, and deported. In all, at least 80 percent of the prewar Dutch Jewish community perished. Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands. 20 June 1943.